МАЛЬВА - ТОПИНАМБУР MALVA - TOPINAMBUR

Jerusalem artichoke: tubers, planting material

Jerusalem artichoke tubers

Jerusalem artichoke (topinambour, earth apple) – Helianthus tubersrosus L relates to the Daisy family, originating from North America. It was brought to Europe at the beginning of the 17th century, first to France, then to Italy, England, Germany, Holland and other countries. High viability of the plant can be proved by the fact its wild forms were found in the old planting sites of the 19th century in Ukraine and North Caucasus. As a valuable crop it is cultivated in the USA, Canada, Australia, Japan, France, England, Germany, Netherlands and other countries.


Morphological features: above the ground there appear thick branching stem up to 4 m long with lots of leaves. When young the stems are covered with hard hair later dying. The leaves are big, long, ovoid-acute, serrated, hairy from the bottom and macropodous. The root system is strong and multibranching. The main root is deep in the soil, more than 2 m, 2-3 times deeper than potato. The flowers are small, bright-yellow, ray florets and disk florets form capitates flowerhead. From the bottom side the narrow leaves form an envelope.


The fruit is a cone-shaped angular achene consisting of a leathery pericarp and some oily seed. The mass of 1000 seeds makes 7 up to 9 g. The pollination is cross. There are lateral bines forming in the subterranean part of the plant, i.e. the stolons which thicken and turn into pear-shaped tubers due to the penetration plastic substances. Their number in an ovule, form, dimensions and mass are up to the genus and the conditions of cultivation. The dimensions of the tubers are different: big, medium and small ones; their form may be elongated, spindle-shaped, pear-shaped and irregularly roundish, sometimes with expressly salient eyes; the color of the peel is white or yellowish. The tubers are covered with some thin peel without any cork layer that’s why they cannot be stored for too long without any special conditions.


The earth-apple propagates itself by tubers. Its biological cycle goes on and terminates within the summer season in Ukraine, just like the one of an annual plant. However, this plant relates to perennials from the economical point of view because the tubers left in the ground produce new suckers in spring every year.


The morphological description and the technological properties of the tubers relating to the sort “Interes” are:

  • The color is light brown;
  • The form is pear-shaped;
  • The medium size is 9,0 *4,0 cm;
  • The number of eyes is small;
  • The position of eyes is slightly sunk;
  • The distinctive feature is the availability of salient edges above the eyes.


The technological properties of the earth-apple tubers of the genus “Interes” make it possible to realize mechanical cleaning and peeling during their industrial processing.


Biochemical composition of the Jerusalem artichoke (topinambour, earth apple) of the sort “Interes”.


The analysis carried out during autumn and spring time harvests determined the fractional and carbohydrate composition of the tubers. The content of the tubers general humidity is practically the same in autumn and in spring and constitutes 77,0% and 77,3%; the content of the dry matter makes 23,0% and 22,7% accordingly. 1 kg of the dry matter has 90 g of crude protein in autumn and 94,5 g in spring what is regarded as a medium index.


The mineral content of the earth-apple is available as crude ash which quantity is practically equal in autumn and in spring: 40,7 g and 39,8 g/kg of dry matter.


There were found 9 of 10 irreplaceable amino acids in the tubers. The investigation methods did not allow to determine the availability of tryptophan. The sort “Interes” has average level of essential amino acids: 26,0 up to 27,0 g/kg.


The sort “Interes” is poor with lysine; it has only 2,42 g/kg (or 2,16 g/kg in spring). The content of the second most important amino acid – methionine – corresponds to the average index of 0,32 g/kg.


We determined the content of the main mineral substances relating to the group of macro elements. The table has some data about the content of nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and sulphur in one kilo of dry matter.


Content of total nitrogen and macro elements in 1 kg of dry matter of the Jerusalem artichoke (topinambour, earth apple) tubers relating to the sort “Interes” (in g)


Season of tubers harvestingNitrogenCalciumPhosphorusPotassiumMagnesiumSulphur
Autumn14.41.681.9719.961.131.23
Spring15.11.081.9012.961.041.13

The tubers contain enough iron and manganese.


The main part of monosaccharides and easily hydrolysable carbohydrates (sugar, inulin and starch) as well as some organic acids are included in the anazotic extractive substances (AES) which make on the average 82,6% of dry matter and 86,4% of the organic one.


The Jerusalem artichoke tubers of the sort “Interes”, which have been harvested in autumn, accumulate about 80 kg of glucose per 1 hectare. The level of fructose is considerably more and makes 308 kg.


The earth-apple tubers are valuable as forage and industrial crop because of some other polymer – fructosan inulin that has about 70% of all carbohydrates and about 50% of all dry matter of the tubers. The output makes 7t/ha at the autumn harvest of the tubers and directly depends on yield volume.


The total output of carbohydrates (without cellulose and hemicellulose), the monosaccharide and easily hydrolysable carbohydrates (sugar, inulin and starch) included, made 9,4 t/ha.


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Рецептура и технология производства продуктов с концентратом клубней топинамбура для кондитерского, хлебобулочного, консервного производства может быть разработана совместно с Одесской Национальной Академией Пищевых Технологий. Ведущие специалисты Академии выразили заинтересованность в разработке совместных проектов с нашим предприятием и нашими партнерами-клиентами, которые хотели бы получить профессиональную рекомендацию в области применения нашего порошка из клубней топинамбура.


Новое предложение – топинамбур для магазинов и супермаркетов.

Свежий, мытый, отборный (калиброванный) топинамбур пищевого сорта. Фасовка под заказ. Мешки, ящики, кульки. Период поставки с 20 октября по 1 апреля. Согласно РСТ УССР 1995-89.


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Jerusalem artichoke